The transition matrix (Table 2) shows a cross-classification of parental and personal educational level. There is a general trend towards upward mobility, with few young adults with only primary education. Even among those with parents who only completed primary education, just 5.5% of the boys and 3.6% of the girls end up with only primary education. Among those with parents with higher education, less than 1% of the boys and girls obtain only primary education. The majority of the young adults finish at least higher secondary education. Two thirds of the boys of parents with higher education also end up in higher education, among girls this amounts to 80.1%. In the next sections the different mobility patterns will be referred to starting with the abbreviation of the parental education, followed by personal education (e.g. PE-HSE: young adult with primary-educated parents who completed higher-secondary education).
Register-based population data normally do not include detailed information on health-related issues. The 2001 census is an exceptionally rich source of information in this respect, including questions on self-rated health and long-term illness and disability. With the data at hand, it is not possible to identify causal relations, but we found strong associations between having a longstanding illness and young-adult mortality, that clearly lowered the association between personal education and young-adult mortality, especially among the primary educated. It is possible that sickness kept them from attaining a higher educational level. But even among this low-educated group, the association with mortality remains significant after inclusion of having a long-standing illness, except for cancer mortality and suicide mortality among women. To account for health selection, we would also need information on health at T1 (the 1991 census) and longitudinal follow-up on health, which was not available.
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a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life There were no reports of the arbitrary or unlawful deprivation of life committed by the Government or its agents. In March the Brussels Chamber of Indictment ruled that five ex-gendarmes (reorganized in 2001 as the federal police) must stand trial for their alleged roles in the 1998 death of Semira Adamu, a Togolese refugee, who died during her forced repatriation. Defendants in the 1991 killing of Andre Cools awaited trial at year's end. b. Disappearance There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances. c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The law prohibits such practices, and in general government officials did not employ them. The operations of all police forces were integrated into a federal system and overseen by the Federal Police Council and an anticorruption unit. A delegation from the Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture carried out one of its periodic visits to the country in late 2001. The delegation indicated that it had examined the procedures and means applied during the repatriation by air of foreign nationals, the implementation of the 1990 law on the protection of the mentally ill, and the situation in public establishments for youth protection and reviewed recommendations made after its 1993 and 1997 visits. In October the Government released the delegation's report. It addressed a limited number of allegations of ill-treatment by law enforcement officials, but did not indicate that there were any systemic abuses. The report made recommendations concerning the use of force and means of restraint during involuntary movement of prisoners, while noting that the Government already had taken numerous measures to reduce risks to prisoners. The report's principal concerns were violence between prisoners at Andenne Prison, chronic overcrowding at Antwerp Prison, and the operation of psychiatric care system in prisons. Prison conditions varied: Newer prisons generally met international standards, while some older facilities nearly met international standards despite their Spartan physical conditions and limited resources. Overcrowding was a problem. In December the prison system, which was designed to hold 7,759 prisoners, held 8,673 prisoners according to government figures. However, construction projects that started during the year were expected to expand the prison system capacity by 870 persons. Men and women were held separately. In June the Government established a maximum-security facility for juvenile prisoners and no longer permitted them to be held in adult prisons. Juvenile prisoners routinely were released from detention whenever the maximum-security facility reached its limit. The Government did not hold convicted criminals and pretrial detainees in separate facilities. Families were allowed to visit prisoners without supervision. Approximately 300 prisoners nearing the end of their sentences lived at home under electronic surveillance at year's end. The Government permitted visits by independent human rights observers, and such visits took place during the year. d. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile The law prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and the Government generally observed these prohibitions. Arrested persons must be brought before a judge within 24 hours. Pretrial confinement was subject to monthly review by a panel of judges, which could extend pretrial detention based on established criteria (e.g., whether, in the court's view, the arrested person would be likely to commit further crimes or attempt to flee if released). At times lengthy pretrial detention was a problem. Bail exists in principle under the law but was granted rarely. In September 37.3 percent of the prison population consisted of pretrial detainees. Pretrial detainees received more privileges than did convicted criminals, such as the right to more frequent family visits. Arrested persons were allowed prompt access to a lawyer of their choosing or, if they could not afford one, to an attorney appointed by the State. Fehriye Erdal, a Kurdish woman accused of involvement in a 1996 terrorist attack in Turkey, remained under house arrest pending trial at year's end. The law prohibits forced exile, and the Government did not employ it. e. Denial of Fair Public Trial The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary, and the Government generally respected this provision in practice. The judicial system was organized according to specialization and territorial jurisdiction, with 5 territorial levels: Canton (225), district (27), provinces and Brussels (11), courts of appeal (5), and the Cour de Cassation, which was the highest appeals court.Military tribunals tried military personnel for common law as well as military crimes. All military tribunals consisted of four military officers and a civilian judge. At the appellate level, the civilian judge presided; a military officer presided at trial. The accused had the right of appeal to a higher military court. Each judicial district had a Labor Court, which dealt with litigation between employers and employees regarding wages, notice, competition clauses, and social security benefits (see Section 6.b.). There was also a magistrate in each district to monitor cases involving religious groups (see Section 2.c.). The law provides for the right to a fair trial, and an independent judiciary generally enforced this right. Charges were stated clearly and formally, and there was a presumption of innocence. All defendants had the right to be present, to have counsel (at public expense if needed), to confront witnesses, to present evidence, and to appeal. The federal prosecutor's office was responsible for prosecuting crimes involving nuclear materials, human trafficking, arms trafficking, human rights violations, and terrorism, as well as crimes against the security of the State. The Summary Trial Act, which covers crimes punishable by 1 to 10 years' imprisonment, allows a prosecutor to issue an arrest warrant for the immediate appearance in court of an offender caught in the act of allegedly committing a crime. The warrant expires after 7 days, and the court must render its verdict within 5 days of the initial hearing. Defense attorneys challenged the summary trial procedures in May before the Cour de Cassation. The court upheld a civil conviction but did not address the summary trial question. Several human rights organizations claimed that summary trial violated the presumption of innocence and jeopardized the right to a full and fair defense. A High Council on Justice supervised the appointment and promotion of magistrates. The Council served as a permanent monitoring board for the entire judicial system and was empowered to hear complaints against individual magistrates. Several government reforms implemented in 1998 granted stronger rights to victims of crime. These measures allowed victims to have more access to information during an investigation, as well as the right to appeal if an investigation does not result in a decision to bring charges. The Government opened Justice Houses in each of the 27 judicial districts. These facilities combined a variety of legal services under one roof, including legal aid, mediation, and victim's assistance. So-called universal competence legislat